1) Students are expected to acquire knowledge and to understand:
(a) basic historical concepts, such as cause and effect, change and continuity, as well as similarities and differences in time and space;
(b) diverse standpoints and perspectives inherent in different ways of representing and interpreting the past;
(c) the beliefs, experiences and behaviours of their own nation as well as of other nations, and the ways in which they shape the development of the contemporary world;
(d) the interrelation of major events and movements that occurred in the local community, the nation, Asia and the world in the 20th century; and
(e) the major historical developments and trends that have shaped the contemporary world.
2) Students are expected to master the skills to:
(a) distinguish facts from opinions, to detect biased viewpoints, ambiguous assumptions and unsubstantiated arguments, and to build up proper historical perspectives;
(b) compare and interpret historical data, to arrive at reasoned conclusions based on available evidence, and to recognise the fact that history is subject to reassessment based on the interpretation of new evidence;
(c) ascertain and explain the extent to which historical documents and archives reflect contemporary attitudes, values and passions;
(d) present logical and coherent arguments through the proper selection of historical data;
(e) collect and analyse data, and to consider various feasible ways of arriving at
conclusions and making appraisals; and
(f) apply historical knowledge and skills in everyday life.
3) Students are expected to cultivate positive values and attitudes that will enable them to:
(a) appreciate the difficulties and challenges that humankind faced in the past, and to understand the attitudes and values that influence human behaviour;
(b) respect and tolerate different opinions, and to recognise the fact that although different races have different experiences and beliefs, there are values and ideals commonly shared by all humankind;
(c) develop and maintain an inquisitive spirit towards human culture; and
(d) become responsible citizens with a sense of national identity and a global perspective.